One of the fundamental problems faced by Islamic banks is currently standardizing accounting and auditing system, which aims to create financial transparency and improve the quality of financial services to the community. We know that among the keys to the success of Islamic banking is largely determined by the level of public confidence in the bank's financial strength is concerned, and confidence in the bank's operational compliance with Islamic sharia system. This belief is particularly trust given by the depositors and investors, which were both major stakeholders including the banking system in the world.

One of the main sources to achieve public confidence is a high level of information provided to the public, which the Islamic bank should be able to convince the public that he has the ability and capacity in achieving financial goals and objectives in accordance with Islamic Shari'a. Therefore, build a system of accounting and auditing standards is a necessity and has become the main requirement that must be met. Without it, it is impossible Islamic banks can increase its competitiveness with conventional banks. Even if we look at the Qur'an, then the need for recording transactions in an orderly accounting system is a very important thing. This is as stated in Sura Al-Baqarah: 282, where Allah SWT says: ¡° O ye who believe, if you do not bermuamalah in cash for a specified time, you should write it. And let a writer of you write properly. And do not be reluctant writer to write as Allah has taught him, then let him write, and let people who owe it mengimlakkan (what's going to write it), and let him fear Allah his Lord, and let it reduce its debt at all rather than ...¡± .

Of course, if we associate that verse with contemporary banking context, it has a systematic accounting systems, transparent, and accountable, is an inseparable part of Islamic teachings. But we need to consider, especially at the operational level, the accounting system on Islamic banking has its own characteristics different from conventional banking accounting system, although in certain aspects, both have similarities. Among the most basic difference is the prohibition of usury / interest in the practice of Islamic banking and Islamic banking product differentiation is more varied and diverse when compared with the conventional banking system. Thus the concept and basic structure of investment and finance in Islamic banking system should become the main preamble in building a credible accounting system.

Basic mechanisms of Islamic Bank
As a financial intermediary institutions, the basic mechanism of sharia banks are accepting deposits from the owners of capital (depositors) at the side of his liability (obligation) to then offer financing to investors on the asset side, with a pattern or an appropriate financing scheme with the Islamic Shari'a. On the liabilities side, there are two main categories, namely interest-free current and savings accounts and investment accounts based on the principle of PLS (Profit and Loss Sharing) between the bank by the depositor. While the asset side, which is including all forms of financing patterns and usury-free Islamic standards, such as mudarabah, musharaka, istisna, greetings, and so on.

To achieve this goal is a standard accounting, the basic structure of our investment activities can be broken down into two parts, the first, unrestricted investment accounts (investment accounts without limitations) and the second, which is restricted investment accounts (investment accounts with limitations). The purpose of the first point is the Islamic banks have the freedom to invest the funds received in various investment activities without being limited by certain provisions, including the use together with the bank owners of capital. While the purpose of the second point is the bank only acts as a manager who does not have the authority to mix funding received by the owners of capital the bank without the approval of investors. Besides both cases, Islamic banks must also reflect its function as a charity fund managers, and charitable funds including funds qard hasan. Meanwhile, the aspect of recognition (recognition), measurement (measurement), and recording (recording) each transaction in the accounting system of Islamic banks have in common with the processes that occur in conventional systems.

Objectives of Financial Accounting
To maintain consistency, both internal and external banks, and to ensure compliance with Islamic law, then we need to define the purpose of standardization of financial accounting in Islamic banking. This is also an attempt to provide a general guide in determining a number of choices based on alternatives available. The purpose of this financial accounting system is the first, to determine the rights and obligations of all parties concerned, such as the depositor and the bank owners. Then the second is to ensure the security and safety of Islamic bank assets, including bank guarantees related rights and rights of other stakeholders. Third, ensuring improved management and the productive capability of Islamic banks to be always in harmony with the objectives and policies that have been established. And the fourth is to provide useful financial reports for the users ¡ª such as shareholders, owners of accounts, fiscal authorities, etc. ¡ª to enable them to make legitimate decisions in conducting negotiations and transactions with the Islamic banks.

In order for a financial report is really justifiable, then the quality of the information provided must meet several criteria, among others: (i) the principle of benefit, especially for the wearer; (ii) the relevance of financial reports with a view to reporting; (iii) level of trust; (iv) komparabilitas, meaning can be compared based on a specific time period; (v) consistency, which means that the method is used consistently and not easily changed; and (vi) easy to understand, and no multi-interpretation. In addition to these six, the information provided should also include some aspects. First, the information available should be able to describe accomplish existing goals and consistency with the Shari'a. If banks do deal in prohibited transactions, such as associated with the system of usury, it must be explained in detail about the separation of recording the transaction. And second, that information should be able to help outsiders to evaluate the bank's capital adequacy ratio, investment risk, liquidity, and various other banking financial aspects. This is very important to do, so that the credibility of the banks accountable.

Challenges ahead
At present, various efforts have been made to establish auditing and accounting systems that are standard for Islamic banks. Among them are the efforts made by AAOIFI (the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions), based in Bahrain. Since its founding in 1991, this institution has many significant contributions. But of course, still many things to be done by experts and practitioners of Islamic banking. This is due to the greater challenges, including how to compete in a healthy and productive with conventional banks.

Among the toughest challenges that the future is how to create a standard accounting methodology to various types of patterns or Islamic banking financing schemes that can be accepted internationally. Then also is the challenge that regulation in general has not shown more allegiance to the Islamic banking sector. But the author believes, if all parties have been consistent in upholding the concept of Islamic banking as a whole, then gradually Islamic banking have hope for the future may replace the conventional banking system. Hopefully. White six.

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