Definition and Objectives
There are various definitions of Islamic Economics, according to economists and Muslim intellectuals. Two of the various terms are: Islamic Economics is a social science which studies the economic problems of the people who have the Islamic values (Mannan, 1997, p. 19). Islamic Economics is the branch of science that helps to realize human welfare through the allocation and distribution of resources which are scarce in accordance with maqashid (Chapra, 2000, p. 125). However, in essence can be perceived that the science of Islamic Economics is the study of human efforts in allocating resources to meet the needs of life in ways consistent with Islamic teachings.

Thus, Islamic Economics has a different task with conventional economics. Duties in addition to studying the reality of the behavior of economic agents, both domestic producers, domestic consumers, and governments, also must formulate the concept of ideal behavior according to Islamic teachings should be made by economic agents, as well as its effects are possible for the economy. Concretely, this science in addition to explaining the variables involved, which may cause a discrepancy between the real behavior with the ideal behavior also served recommend appropriate strategies to guide the behavior of economic agents to the ideal behavior can be realized (Chapra, 2000, pp 127-128 ).

Philosophy of Science
Ontology deals with the nature of what is studied, or in other words, ontology is the science of being qua being. Methodology of science can not be separated from the human perspective view of the world (worldview), among others, a view of where the origin of the universe, what meaning and purpose of human life, such as what rights and responsibilities of individuals and communities against one another (Chapra , 2001, p. 12).

Epistemology is about how the body of knowledge developed. In other words, discuss the scope and limits of science. The question that must be answered: Where the source of knowledge? What is the nature of science? How to verify the truth?. Truth revelation dogmatic and absolute, so the role of revelation in the search for truth is very important. However, we are required to place the truth of rational and empirical facts within the framework of Islam as a whole. In fact, Islam regards the position of reasonable importance, to the point that God's wrath against those who do not want to use reason (10:100). There are two main approaches used to develop the science of Islamic Economics deductive and inductive. Deductive approach begins with extracting the essence of Islamic teachings into elements of Islamic economic theory. Inductive approach, in contrast, begins by describing the real behavior of economic agents and the interactions between them in the economy.

Verificationism is a view which says that an idea can be said right when he discovered evidence that could support the idea. Falsificationism is a view which says that an idea can be said right when he did not find evidence that could refute the idea. Falsificationism versus verificationism debate so far is still going on among Western economists. Economic experts discuss Islam is not a lot of this debate because they are only at the level of empiricism. Meanwhile, epistemology in Islamic economics are even more extensive, including concepts or ideas that are non-empirical (eg, about God, afterlife, etc.). Masudul Alam Choudhury (1998), explained that Islamic economic approach to using the methodology shuratic individual process is replaced by a consensus of experts and market participants in creating a balance of economic and market behavior. Individualism which is the basic idea of conventional economics can no longer survive, because it ignores the right of distribution, so that created a gulf between the rich and the poor.

A science is said to be positive when discussing something at the level of what it is (what is), and normative when discussing something at the level of what should be (ought to). In accordance with his duties, Islamic economics is not limited solely as a positive science or normative nature. Restricted Islamic economics as a purely positive science or normative is unnecessary and unproductive. Any attempt to limit the positive aspects and normative in the end would be bad, in terms of causing birth and growth of secularism in the science of Islamic Economics (Mannan, 1997, p. 9-13).

Axiology discuss the purpose of organized science, or in other words, to what science has been developed that will be used. The purpose of Islamic economics is to achieve Falah, or the happiness of the world hereafter. For the life of the world, Falah contains three terms: survival, freedom from poverty, and strength and honor. For the life hereafter, Falah contains three terms: the eternal survival, welfare immortal, eternal glory, and knowledge that is free from all ignorance.

Position and Development
Some authors express different views about the relationship of Islamic economics and conventional economics. Some places of Islamic economics is de novo, as part of Islamic science as a whole. Some places of Islamic economics at par with conventional economics, as part of the overall economics. Although related, but not Islamic Economics muamalah fiqh. Muamalah fiqh is knowledge of Islamic rules that are practical in the economic field (civil) and the arguments associated with these rules. Islamic economics has three functions relationship with fiqh muamalah: [1] a different function with fiqh muamalah, [2] the same function with fiqh muamalah, [3] Function that supports muamalah fiqh.

Knowledge of the history of the Muslim economy is very useful for the development of Islamic economics. However, what has been done by predecessors Muslims should not be interpreted as an ideal guide for an Islamic economy (except for what is epitomized in the Prophet Prophethood). Many Muslim thinkers have valuable contributions that directly or indirectly affect the development of modern economics. This, again expressed need in order to raise awareness and pride of the Islamic civilization Muslims will. However, these contributions must be examined critically and objectively, and should not be accepted for granted just because it is done by a Muslim.

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