General accounting function as a tool to present information that is financial, especially in relation to socio-economic activities within a community of people who apply tertentu.Sebagaimana now that the rules or standards used to compile financial reports - known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles -- can not be separated from the community point of view (in which economic activity was organized) to the values of social life. This is evident from the not easy to harmonize international accounting standards, although there are always efforts towards cultivated by the International Accounting Standards, which we PSAK Part also using the IAS as a reference or references.

The implications of these above causes a strong effort from Muslim scholars, especially in the economic field and accounting for formulating economic and accounting system in accordance with the guidelines of Islamic Shariah.

Personal duty of every Muslim to hold the property records as well as debt and obligations actually contained in the Qur'an in various dimensions, it reflects the orderly administration which is a very important part in the life of a Muslim to allow a Muslim can easily fulfill their obligations like charity, debt settlement receivables, etc. estate calculations.

Therefore, standardization of financial accounting based on Islamic Sharia becomes an obsession that realistic for the community of scholars and business practitioners around the world although Muslims Muslims are not in a position of power and influence is significant in social life and political economy to the global size of even the recent It is facing a very severe test.

Development of a desire to realize the Islamic identity of the new business successfully realized in the form of appearance-based banking on Islamic guidance, while other business entities such as manufacturing, commerce and other services not specifically stated as a business entity Islam with all its consequences.

The emergence of Islamic banking has been rapidly pushing the need to standardize operational systems that will terrefleksi in the accounting system used As with the base in the reporting system to meet the different interest groups who need the information tsb. to measure the accountability and effectiveness of the management of economic resources which they will be mandated by the entity.

Tsb needs facilitated by the existence of accounting and auditing organization for Islamic financial institutions (Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institution) is headquartered in Manama, Bahrain, and encompassing nearly all Islamic financial institutions, professional accounting organizations and central banks of countries that allow operation tsb islam.Lembaga financial institutions. has published accounting standards for Islamic financial institutions / banks which certainly is expected to be adopted by professional accounting organizations and the central bank organizers countries Islamic banks.

Approach in tsb.menggunakan accounting standard-setting International Accounting Standards as the primary basis of the standard needs assessment in accordance with Islamic banking operations in a practical way so that IAS will accept as long as not contrary to the sharia and automatically rejected if it is not in line with Islamic guidance with the consequences of creating a standard only in accordance with sharia.

The difference is quite fundamental philosophical between conventional banks with Islamic banking standards have implications for financial statement presentation given Sharia bank sharia bank functions include the functions of investment managers, investors, service providers and financial traffic and charity managers of social funds.

Another thing that is not less important is the concept used for the results so that the Islamic banks do not know the cost of funds or cost of funds as a deduction on interest income to produce a spread / margin before operating expenses reduced by. That is why the Islamic banks do not recognize the negative spread is due to the results to investors or depositors actually based the ratio of pre-agreed outcome of the investment management and banking business solely on the funds entrusted by the owners or depositors' funds in banks.

The relationship between the customer funds with the bank owner is the investor relations with fund managers so that they will be investing in Islamic banks accounting standards should be recorded as investment accounts (investment accounts) and not as an obligation or liabilities. While funds are deposited not only on the basis of the covenant, but on the basis mudaraba wadiah covenant will be recorded as a liability or liabilities, although the funds the bank they will have the right to invest and get results for separate bank profits without any obligation to give the results. However, banks should provide rewards for owners wadiah funds in accordance with bank policy prevalent even picked the right bank fund management burden tsb (administrative burden).

On the other hand the relationship with the recipient's bank is funding and business partnerships or relationships because of the debt receivable purchase and sale transactions (murabaha) which have not been resolved or paid respite.

In the Islamic view is not strictly relevant to separate the financial institutions and non-bank banks even though non-financial institution that is the thing that could happen if an Islamic financial institutions conducting activities in real estate investing such as developers or developers like or do trading in cash and / or good leasing, which ended with the transfer of rights or not.

Broadly speaking, the financial report display on the side of Islamic banks is characterized by the existence of assets account financing (financing) either in the form of bills of transactions or the shape of the bank's participation in the position of the covenant or musharaka mudaraba also of other productive assets in the form of leased assets or even inventory can be significant depending on the activities of Islamic banks tsb. On the liabilities side wadiah characterized the funds in the form of current account and in some specific countries also include savings accounts and unrestricted investment accounts of a deposit account with the akad mudaraba so not classified as liabilities in the sense of mandatory return under any circumstances.

Definition of unrestricted investment accounts are free to show the bank can make an investment as long as not contrary to the sharia was on the other side there is a restricted investment account that according to Sharia bank accounting standards are not recorded as part of the liabilities, but are recorded as off balance sheets with a special report disclosure form reports change position limited investment funds (compared with funds managed by BI and SKAPI version) are forms of investment are also not recorded as productive assets. In this case the bank and earn a fee or for the results.

The contents of the report Profit - Loss also reflects the function of the Islamic banks in the form of sales revenue (from murabaha) for the results (of mudaraba and musharaka) rental income (from ijarah / leasing) and income other services as long as not contrary to the sharia and if forced banks receive income such as non-Islamic banking services from conventional deposits will be issued and distributed to the social interests which must be didisclose thing. On the load side of the load will not be found even for the fund should not be classified as an expense in the reporting of Islamic banks, but must be clearly disclose the basis for the use of other operational costs are no different from conventional banks.

Basically, Islamic banks are also embracing the concept of accruals, especially for the load was for revenue to be done carefully depending on the local Islamic council opinion whether to use cash or accrual basis. Use of cash basis refers to the precautionary principle is based on Islamic teachings that say that what will happen, so visiting is not ghoib should recognize revenue (read: luck) before you actually shaped the flow of real cash into the bank (remember the principle that BI is used before the SKAPI the cash basis). In Islamic banking accounting standards such as for billing murabaha benefits are recognized when the covenant was signed when the loan is not through a financial reporting period is when the credit through a financial reporting period either in lumpsum or installment is revenue recognition should be proportionate to the accrual unless sharia supervisory board to determine when cash or installment / payment is received.

From the description above shows that although not all things can be revealed but at least gives a picture that needs a new paradigm for designing applications dalm accounting for Islamic banks in accordance with existing standards. Although the academic discussion is still ongoing in order to deepen and enrich the discourse of ideas and business economic system of Islam is consistent with the effect of a law which is a refinement of banking laws earlier bank was very encouraging because it can adopt BI tsb standards. together with IAI, so there are standard guidelines for the practice of Islamic banking especially when it then began to appear a new Islamic bank in the form of a bank or a branch of Islamic sharia from conventional banks.

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